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MAN Citing Sources for Academic Success: In-text citing

Covers the four citation types used at UW-Manitowoc: Turabian/Chicago, MLA, APA, and ACS

How it all works

Citing is usually a two-part process. 

  • First, there is a reference in the text, where a number or an in-text reference is placed.
  • Second, there is a list of references known as a bibliography, "sources used" list, footnotes, or endnotes, that provide more complete information.

With the Chicago/Turabian style, there may be three steps:  the notation to the reference in the text (a super-scripted number), the footnote or endnote, and the citation in the bibliography.  

Examples

Modern Language Association Example

Blogs can be valuable tools for teaching the concept of scholarly communication (Dietering and Gronemyer 498).

Dietering, Anne-Marie, and Kate Gronemyer. "Beyond Peer-Reviewed Articles: Using ;Blogs to Enrich Students’ Understanding of Scholarly Work." Portal: Libraries and the Academy 11.1 (2011): 489-503. Project MUSE. Web. 6 Mar. 2011. <http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pla/summary/v011/ 11.1.deitering.html>.

To see how MLA is used in a published article, look here: 

Magnusson, Kendra. "Lemony Snicket's A Series of Unfortunate Events: Daniel Children's Literature Association Quarterly 37.1 (2012): 86-107. Project Muse. Web. 22 Mar. 2013.

Examples

American Psychological Association

APA uses the authors last name(s) and date within the text.  Page numbers are usually not included unless a quotation is cited. 

Blogs can be valuable tools for teaching the concept of scholarly communication (Dietering & Gronemyer, 2011, p. 498).

Deitering, A., & Gronemyer, K. (2011). Beyond peer-reviewed articles: Using blogs to enrich students’ understanding of scholarly work. Portal: Libraries and the Academy, 11(1), 489-503.  DOI: 10.1353/pla.2011.0001

See here for an example of A.P.A. style in a real article: 

Berg, K. C., Crosby, R. D., Cao, L., Peterson, C. B., Engel, S. G., Mitchell, J. E., & Wonderlich, S. A. (2013). Facets of negative affect prior to and following binge-only, purge-only, and binge/purge events in women with bulimia nervosa. Journal Of Abnormal Psychology, 122(1), 111-118. doi:10.1037/a0029703

Examples

Chicago/Turabian Style

Blogs can be valuable tools for teaching the concept of scholarly communication.1

1 Anne-Marie Dietering and Kate Gronemyer, "Beyond Peer-Reviewed Articles: Using Blogs to Enrich Students’ Understanding of Scholarly Work," Portal: Libraries and the Academy 11, no. 1 (January 2011): 498, accessed March 22, 2013, DOI:10.1353/pla.2011.0001.

Dietering, Anne-Marie, and Kate Gronemyer. "Beyond Peer-Reviewed Articles: Using Blogs to Enrich Students’ Understanding of Scholarly Work." Portal: Libraries and the Academy 11, no. 1 (January 2011): 489-503. Accessed March 22, 2013. DOI:10.1353/pla.2011.0001.

Follow the link provided to an article that uses the Chicago style.  Note that the journal uses endnotes, not footnotes, and does not require a separate bibliography.  Your professor may require both footnotes and a bibliography.  

Jaroszynska-Kirchmann, Anna D. ""Everybody Writes": Readers and Editors and Their Interactions in the Polish-Language Press, 1922-1969." Journal of American Ethnic History 33, no. 1 (2013): 35-69.

 

Examples

American Chemical Society

Blogs can be valuable tools for teaching the concept of scholarly communication (1).

(1).  Dietering, A.; Gronemyer, K. Beyond Peer-Reviewed Articles: Using Blogs to Enrich Students' Understanding of Scholarly Work.  Portal:  Libraries and the Academy [Online] 2011, 11, 489-503.  Project Muse (accessed Oct 13, 2012).

Note:  It would be highly unlikely for this particular topic to be discussed in a journal using the ACS style.  The example, though, shows how this style is more similar to the others than it is different from them. 

Look at the articles accessible from this page of the ACS site for examples of this style.