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MAN Citing Sources for Academic Success: When to cite

Covers the four citation types used at UW-Manitowoc: Turabian/Chicago, MLA, APA, and ACS

When do I need to cite?

Purdue OWL:  Avoiding Plagiarism. Is it plagiarism yet?

Yale College Writing Center. Warning:  When You Must Cite

UW-Madison Writing Center.  Avoiding Plagiarism:  Quoting and Paraphrasing

Council of Writing Program Administrators.  Defining and Avoiding Plagiarism: The WPA Statement on Best Practices


What is plagiarism?

Quoting someone without using quotes and without identifying the source.

Paraphrasing without giving the source.

Patchwriting is a botched attempt at paraphrasing in which just one or two words are different.

Borrowing someone else's thinking or logical approach without identifying it.

Pretending that someone else's idea is your idea. 

Avoid trouble by Identifying sources, citing, and using quotations. 

See:  The Common Types of Plagiarism.

How to Insert Borrowed Information Into a Paper

When you write a paper and want to show that information used comes from somebody else, you have some choices of how to do that.  Either quote, paraphrase, or summarize.

What is a quotation?

  • Anything that you give verbatim
  • Anything that you have not paraphrased or summarized
  • Anytime when you do not change the words of the author
  • Facts, statistics, tables, charts, graphs, images, data must also be cited
  • See, "How to Quote a Source" from the UW-Madison Writing Center for more information

What is paraphrasing?

  • A paraphrase means that you have changed the author's words
  • Paraphrasing is difficult to do correctly
  • See "Paraphrase Exercises" from Purdue OWL to practice paraphrasing

What is summarizing?

You don't need to cite common knowledge