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RCK English 102 - Pruitt: Citing Sources

LibGuide for Prof. Pruitt's English 102 course

How it all works

Citing is usually a two-part process. 

  • First, there is a reference in the text, where a number or an in-text reference is placed.
  • Second, there is a list of references known as a bibliography, "sources used" list, footnotes, or endnotes, that provide more complete information.

With the Chicago/Turabian style, there may be three steps:  the notation to the reference in the text (a super-scripted number), the footnote or endnote, and the citation in the bibliography.  


Modern Language Association (MLA) Example

Blogs can be valuable tools for understanding the research process, especially for concepts such as plagiarism and peer-review (Dietering and Gronemyer).

Dietering, Anne-Marie, and Kate Gronemyer. "Beyond Peer-Reviewed Articles: Using
     Blogs to Enrich Students’ Understanding of Scholarly Work." Portal:
     Libraries and the Academy 11.1 (2011): 489-503. Project MUSE. Web. 6 Mar.
     2011. <

To see how MLA is used in a published article, look here: 

Magnusson, Kendra. "Lemony Snicket's A Series of Unfortunate Events: Daniel
     Handler and Marketing the Author." Children's Literature Association
     Quarterly 37.1 (2012): 86-107. Project Muse. Web. 22 Mar. 2013.

Citing web pages

If you look for the citation elements listed below (Russell, et al.), you will be more likely to conform to standard citation formats even if no good example exists:

  • Author, contributor, or editor
  • Article name (put in quotations when citing)
  • Title of the Website, project, or book (use italics)
  • Any edition information, including revisions, posting dates, volumes, or issue numbers
  • Publisher information, including the publisher name and publishing date (applies mostly to books)
  • Page numbers if available
  • Medium of publication.  This means identifying a source as print, web, art, DVD, email, etc. (MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers)
  • Date you accessed the material (web items only)
  • URL (MLA does not require a URL but you may wish to include it to facilitate finding the source again)

Problems with citing occur when the above elements are not available or when the guidelines don't seem to describe the type of source you are using.  In these cases, adhering to the standard form is the best route to take, though it's also important to be vigorous in the hunt to find citation elements. 

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2009.

Works Cited

Russell, Tony, et al., eds. "MLA Works Cited: Electronic Sources (Web
      Publications)." Purdue Online Writing Lab. Purdue University, 2013. Web. 4
      Mar. 2013. <>.

EBSCO Citations

EBSCO Host provides citation information for records in its databases.  After pulling up the record for an article that meets your needs, look at the right of the page for the "Cite" link.  A pop-up window will appear that provides multiple citations in different formats.  Scroll down to find the MLA citation.  You can copy and paste it and add it to your Noodletools bibliography or a Word document.  Here's an example of an MLA Citation for a scholarly article found in the EBSCO database.  Note that hanging indentation, though required in MLA, did not appear in this paste.

Basch, Charles E. "Physical Activity And The Achievement Gap Among Urban Minority Youth." Journal Of School Health 81.10 (2011): 626-634. Academic Search Complete. Web. 29 Sept. 2012.


When I pasted the citation into my Noodletools bibliography, it was automatically reformatted to include the hanging indentation. 

Basch, Charles E. "Physical Activity and the Achievement Gap Among Urban
     Minority Youth." Journal of School Health 81.10 (2011): 626-34. Academic
     Search Complete. Web. 29 Sept. 2012.